12 février 2007

Propagande et manipulation des masses

Contrairement à une idée reçue, les régimes totalitaires ne sont pas les seuls à recourir à cette forme de manipulation médiatisée qu'on appelle la propagande. Nos démocraties y succombent également, soucieuses de convaincre leurs opinions publiques du bien-fondé de leurs actions.

I. DANS L'UNIVERS DU MENSONGE

A. La persuasion médiatisée
À côté des formes de persuasion dure (propagande politique), il existe de multiples formes de persuasion douce, sans doute moins visibles mais tout aussi efficaces.

B. La parole manipulatoire
Dans La Parole manipulée (2000), Philippe Breton définit la manipulation comme «mensonge organisé, privation de liberté de l'auditoire et outil pour vaincre sa résistance.»

C. Les techniques de la manipulation
Elles consistent soit à jouer sur les affects de l'auditoire, soit à fabriquer de faux raisonnements destinés à le tromper.

II. L'ÈRE DES FOULES

A. La psychologie des foules
Selon Gustave Le Bon (La Psychologie des foules, 1895), la foule est dotée d'une sorte d'«âme collective» qui rend les individus qui la composent particulièrement crédules et influençables.

B. Le viol des foules
Viol que la propagande politique réussit à perpétrer en se greffant en quelque sorte sur l'inconscient collectif de la foule (Serge Tchakhotine, Le Viol des foules par la propagande politique, 1939).

III. LA PROPAGANDE POLITIQUE

A. Les mass media au service de la manipulation des masses
Profitant de l'explosion des médias de masse, la propagande est passée, au XXe siècle, du stade artisanal au stade industriel!

B. Ses caractéristiques internes
La propagande politique obéit à des règles internes et externes (Jean-Marie Domenach). Parmi les premières, la règle de la simplification, du grossissement, de l'orchestration et de la contagion.

C. Ses caractéristiques externes
Pour être efficace, la propagande doit respecter, à l'égard de ses publics, des règles d'opportunisme, de polyvalence et de globalité.

«La propagande de Goebbels, dira Hitler, est une de nos armes de guerre les plus efficaces.» Vous trouverez sur Wikipédia la biographie de Goebbels et sur HSGM, site consacré à l'histoire de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, de nombreuses affiches de propagande, tant au service de l'Axe qu'au service des Alliés.

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